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Friday, October 19, 2012

Hypoxic Drive Theory: Here is your evidence

The hypoxic drive theory was established in 1960.  Since then many studies have shed doubt on this theory, in favor of the Haldane Effect and ventilation-perfusion mismatching.  Listed here is all the evidence that either proves or disproves these theories.

  1. Hoyt, John. W., "Debunking the Myths of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease", Critical Care Medicine, 1997, Volume 25, Number 9, pages 1450-1451 (you'll have to obtain a prescription to view article)
  2. Campbell, E.J.M, "Respiratory Failure,"  The British Medical Journal,  June 1965, 1451-1460 (article provided by link)
  3. Arnottt, W.M, "Respiratory Failure,"  Lancet,  January 1960, Volume 25, Issue 7114, pages 1-7 (you'll have to subscribe to view article)
  4. Campbell, E.J.M, "The J. Burns Amberson Lecture - Management of Acute Respiratory Failure in Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema," The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1968,  Volume 10, issue 6, pages 329-332  (You'll have to become a member to veiw article)
  5. Campbell, E.J.M, "The J. Burns Amberson Lecture - Management of Acute Respiratory Failure in Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema," American Review of Respiratory Diseases, October 1967, Volume 96, Issue 4 (no link available)
  6. Scano,G, A. Spinelli,  R. Duranti, M. Gorini, F. Gigliott i, P. Goti, J. Milic-Emili, "Carbon dioxide responsiveness in COPD patients with and without chronic hypercapnia," Europe Respiratory Journal, 1995, Volume 8, pages 78-85 (full pdf provided by link)
  7. Robinson, Tracy D  David B. Freiberg, Jeff A. Regnis and Iven H. Young, "The Role of Hypoventilation and Ventilation-Perfusion Redistribution in Oxygen-induced Hypercapnea during Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2000, volume 161, pages 1524-1529 (full pdf provided by link)
  8. Aubier, M, et al, "Effects of the administration of O2 on ventilation and blood gases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during acute respiratory failure", American Review of Respiratory Diseases,  1980, Volume 122, pages 747-754 (abstract available by link)
  9. Hanson, et all, "Causes of hypercapnia with Oxygen Therapy in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," Critical Care medicine, 1996, volume 24, pages 23-28 (abstract available by link)
  10. Lazic, D, et al, "The influence of oxygen therapy on the hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,"  July 2008, Volume 65, Issue 7, pages 521-524 (abstract available by link)
  11. Sassoon, C.S., et al, "Hyperoxic-induced Hypercapnea in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease,American Review of Respiratory Disease, 1987, 144, pages526-530 (abstract available by link)
  12. Chien, et al, "Uncontrolled Oxygen Administration and Respiratory Failure in Acute Asthma," Chest, March 2000, Volume 117, Issue 3, pages728-733 (abstract available by link, or pdf here)
  13. Caruana-Montaldo, et al, "The Control of Breathing in Clinical Practice," January 2000, 117/1, pages 205-225 (Article available by link)
  14. Dunn, et al, "Oxygen-Induced Hypercarbia in Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," American Review of Respiratory Disease, 1991, 144, pages 526-530
  15. Gosselink, R, H, Stam editors, Lung Function Testing, 2000 chapter 3, "Control of Breathing," , page 51 (chapter 5 provided for viewing only, supports Campbell)
  16. Rudolf, et al, "(Hypothesis) Hypercapnea During Oxygen Therapy in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Respiratory Failure," Lancet, September 3, 1977, pages 4483-486 (Abstract available by link, prescription needed to view article)
  17. Stradling, J.R, "(Editorial) Hypercapnia during oxygen therapy in airways obstruction: a reappraisal," Thorax, December 1986, 41(12) pages 897-90202 (have to subscribe to veiw article)
  18. Siafakas, N. M, editor, Mitrouska, I, N. Tzanakis, N.M. Siafakas, Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Chapter 18,  "Oxygen Therapy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," 2006, pages 302-308
  19. Crossley, et al, "Influence of inspired oxygen concentration on deadspace, respiratory drive, and paCO2 in intubated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," Critical Care Medicine, 1997, volume 25, Number 9, pages 1522-1526 (abstract available by link)
  20. Plantt, et al, "One year prevalence study of respiratory acidosis in acute exacerbations of COPD:  implications for the provision of non-invasive ventilation and O2 administration," Thorax, 2000, 55, pages 550-554 (full pdf available by link, for abstract click here).
  21. Molfino, et al, "respiratory arrest in Near-Fatal Asthma,New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, 324: pages 285-288 (abstract available by link,  another abstract available here or full pdf available here)  Correspondence to this article from pages 205-206 here.
  22. McFadden, "(Editorial) Fatal and Near Fatal Asthma," New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, 324: pages 409-411
  23. Burnell, et al, "(Case Report) Extreme Obesity Associated with Alveolar Hypoventilation- A Pickwickian Syndrome," , American Journal of Medicine, 1956, 21:811-818 (abstract available by link)
  24. Wagner, et al, "Ventilation-perfusion inequality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," The Journal of Clinical investigations, February 1977, Volume 59, pages 203-216 (full article available by link)
  25. Dick, et al, "O2-Induced changes in Ventilation and Ventilatory Drive in COPD," American Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 1997, Volume 115, pages 609-614 (abstract available by link)
  26. Gasparini, et al, "Inter-Individual Variability of the Response to Oxygen Administration in Hypercapneic Patients," European Journal of Respiratory Disease,  1986, 69 (suppl 146) 427-443 (no abstract or pdf availaable)
  27. Schiavi, "Acute Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," Clinical Pulmonary Medicine, May 1998
  28. Gomersall, Charles D, et al, "Oxygen therapy for hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure: A randomized, controlled pilot study," Critical Care Medicine, January 2002, 1: 113-116 (abstract available by link)
  29. Simpson, Stephen Q, "(Editorial) Oxygen-induced acute hypercapnia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: What's the problem?" Critical Care Medicine, January 2002, 1, page 258
  30. Day, Rene A, Beverly Williams, Brunner and Suddarth's Textbook of Canadian Medical-Surgical Nursing, 2009, page 654
  31. French, William A, "The Hypoxic Drive Theory Revisited," RT:  For Decision Makers in Respiratory Care, " February/ March, 2000
  32. "Hypoxic Drive Theory: A Myth -- the why and how,", 2009,
  33. Siobal, Mark, "Hypoxic Drive in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Is the fear of oxygen therapy based on fact or myth," UCSF San Fransisco General Hospital," power point presentation: PPT
  34.  Beachey, Will, "Breathing Control in Chronic Hypercapnia," RT:  For Decision Makers in Respiratory Care, " June/ July, 2000
  35. "Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients prehospital setting: randomized controlled trial," British Medical Journal, 2010, page 341, C5462
  36. Correspondence (Aubier and Stradling regarding study cited in #8 above), American Review of Respiratory Disease, Oct. 16, 1986
  37. Aubier, et al, "Central Respiratory Drive in Acute Respiratory Failure of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," American Review of Respiratory Disease, 1980, Volume 122, pages 191-99
  38. Grief, Robert, et al, "Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical wound infection," The New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 20, 2000, volume 342, no. 3
  39. Jonnson K, et al, "Tissue oxygenation, anemia, and perfusion in relation to wound healing in surgical patients," Ann Surg, Nov. 1991, 214 (5), pages 605-13
  40. La Van, FB, TK Hunt, "Oxygen and wound healing," Clin Plast Surg, July, 1990, 17 (3), pages 463-72
  41. Bartells, Matthew N., John M. Gonzales, Woojin Kim, Ronald E. De Meersman, "Oxygen Supplementation and Cardiac-Autonomic Modulation in COPD, Chest, 2000, 118, pages 691-6
  42. Noriaki, et al, "the relationship between chronic hypoxemia and activation of the tumor necrosis factor-x- system in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, April, 2000, Vol. 161, Number 4, pages 1179-1184
  43. Mannix, ET, F. Manifredi, MO Farb er, "Elevated O2 cost of ventilation contributes to tissue wasting in COPD," Chest, March, 1999, volume 115, no. 3, pages 708-13
  44. Macnee, Skwarski, "The pathogenisis of peripheral edema in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," Clinical Pulmonary Medicine, Nov., 1997
  45. "Long term domiciliary oxygen therapy in chronic hypoxic cor pulmonale complicating chronic bronchitis and emphysema.  Report of the Medical Research Council Working Party, Lancet, 1981, 1(8222), pages 681-6
  46. Plywaczewski, et al, "Incidence of nocturnal desaturation while breathing oxygen in COPD patients undergoing long-term oxygen therapy," Chest, 2000, 117, pages 679-83
  47. Burnell, et al, "(Case Report) Extreme obesity associated with aleolar hypoventilation -- a pickwickian syndrome," American Journal of Medicine, 1956, 21, pages 811-18
  48. Steven M., Scharf, Michael R. Pinsky, Sheldon Magder, ed., "Respiratory-circulatory interactions in health and disease," 2005, New York, pages 656-658.  This provides a great review of all the evidence that disproves the hypoxic drive theory up to this date.  Great read for those interested. 
  49. Cooper, Nicola, Kirsty Forrest, Paul Cramp, "Essential guide to acute care," 2nd edition, 2006, Massachusettes, page 24
  50. Moulton, Chris, David W. Yates, "Lecture notes:  Emergency Medicine," 3rd ed., 2006, pages 215-16
  51. Savi, Augusto, et al, "Influence of FiO2 During Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with COPD," Respiratory Care, March, 2014, Volume 59, Number 3, pages 383-387
Various individuals contributed to this list, including Jeff Whitnack, Dana Oachs and even Dr. Google.

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