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Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Breathing Patterns Lexicon

Breathing Lexicon:
The  types of breathing patterns:

1.  Eupnea:  Normal breathing at a rate of 12-20 bpm = normal physiology

2.  Apnea:  No breathing = respiratory or cardiac arrest

3.  Bradycardia:  Slow breathing, slow respiratory rate  or less than 10 bpm = normal during sleep, brain tumors, diabetic coma, drugs (alcohol, narcotics), increased intracraneal pressure, metabolic acidosis, uremia

4.  Tachypnea:  Increased respiratory rate (greater than 25 bpm), regular rythm = anxiety (asthmatic), atelectasis, brain lesions, drugs (aspirin), exercise, fear, fever, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, obesity, pain

5.  Hypopnea:  decreased depth with normal rate and rhythm = circulatory failure, meningitis, unconsciousness

6.  Hyperpnea:  increased depth, normal rate and rhythm = exertion, fever, pain, respiratory disease

7.  Apneustic:  Long gasping inspirations with insufficient expiration = lesions in the pneumotaxic center

8.  Biot's:  Fast and deep breaths with periods of apnea, no set rhythm = spinal meningitis, increased ICP, lesions or disease

9.  Cheyne stokes:  increased breaths (rate and depth) then decreasing breaths followed by periods of apnea (20-60 seconds) = normal in newborns and aged, CHF, aortic valve session, dissecting aneurysm, increased CO2 sensitivity, meningitis, increased ICP, cerebral anoxia, drug overdose (morphine), renal failure

10.  Kussmaul's:  Fast deep breaths like sighs with no expiratory phase = DKA, severe hemorrhage, peritonitis, renal failure, uremia

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