My humble answer: Yes. You become certified by passing the NBRC exams for CRT and . Once these tests are passed you qualify to become licensed. Each state has different rules and regulations for licensure, and, I think, only two states remain that are not licensed. Because Michigan started a licence program about five years ago, I was sort of grandfathered in. For that reason I don't know as much about it as a recent grad might.
Your question: What are the hoops to jump through regarding exams, clearances, and competencies?
My humble answer: I think now you have to complete a two year RT program, and then pass the CRT and RRT exams. Once you pass them you qualify to the state license, at least that's how it works in Michigan for me. I think new RTs have to leap through more hoops than that. I say "I think" because I have someone -- my wife -- go through all the loops for me, so in that way I'm sorta out of the loop.