slideshow widget

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

The causes of airway obstruction and restriction

Here is a quick review of the two main types of lung diseases: obstructive versus restrictive.

A. Obstructive.  Any disease that causes the airways to become narrowed or blocked in some way. Here are some examples.

Upper Airway obstruction:
  1. Rhinitis/ pharyngitis
  2. Diphtheria
  3. Croup
  4. Epiglottis
  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  6. Laryngeal paralysis
  7. Tracheal stenosis
  8. Tracheal malacia
  9. Foreign body
  10. Tetanus
Lower Airway obstruction:
  1. Emphysema (COPD)
  2. Chronic bronchitis (COPD)
  3. Asthma
  4. Cystic Fibrosis
  5. Bronchiectasis
  6. Bronchiolitis
  7. Bronchial compression (tumor, lymph nodes)
  8. Endobronchial tumors
  9. Foreign body
  10. Mucus plugging
B. Restrictive. Caused by any condition that decreases the lungs ability to expand and properly ventilate. Here are some examples.
  1. Sarcoidosis
  2. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) or Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
  3. Pneumonia
  4. cancer
  5. granulomatous disorder
  6. obesity
  7. pregnancy
  8. pneumothorax
  9. pleural effusion
  10. kyphoscoliosis
  11. emphysema (loss of lung tissue)
  12. Neuromuscular and neurologic (Guillain-Barre Syndrome, polio myelitis or myasthenia gravis)
  13. Pickwickian syndrome
  14. Pleurisy
Of the above listed causes of airway obstruction and restriction, which four are benefited by a bronchodilator?  Here's a clue: the answer is not any of the restrictive diseases, or any of the conditions causing upper airway obstruction.

1 comment:

Aiesha Grant said...

Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and I guess to some extent cystic fibrosis.